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Solvent/Eluent Selection

Solvent/Eluent Data relevant for Chromatographers

Solvent Properties for Chromatographers

Listed from apolar to polar

Solvent

Polarity Index

Refractive Index at 20C

UV Cut off (nm)

Boiling Point C

Viscosity (cPoise)

Solubility in Water (% w/w)

More Info (Coloured fields most popular in NPLC)

n-Heptane

0.0

1.387

200

98

0.39

0,0003

n-Heptane **

n-Hexane *

0.0

1.375

200

69

0.33

0.001

n-Hexane **

n-Pentane

0.0

1.358

200

36

0.23

0.004

n.-Pentane

1-chlorobutane*
n-butylchloride

1.0

1.4081

220

78

 

0.05

 

Cyclohexane

0.2

1.426

200

81

1.0

0.01

Cyclohexane

Isooctane
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane

0.1 - 0.3

1.404

210

 

0.5

 

Isooctane

Trichloroethylene

1.0

1.477

273

87

0.57

0,57

Trichloroethylene

Tetrachloromethane
Carbon tetrachloride

1.6

1.466

263

77

0.97

0.08

Tetrachloromethane

Triethylamine

1.8

1.401

280

 

0.38

 

 

Di-Iso-Propyl Ether

2.2

1.368

220

68

0.37

 

Di-Iso-Propyl Ether

Toluene

2.3 -2.4

1,496

285

111

0.59

0.051

Toluene

p-Xylene

2.4

1.500

290

139

0.61

0.018

p-Xylene

Methyl-t-Butyl Ether,
t-Butyl Methyl Ether *

2.5

1.369

210

55

0.27

4.8

Methyl-t-Butyl Ether **

Benzene

3.0

1.501

280

80.1

0.65

0.18

Benzene

Benzyl ether

3.3

 

 

 

 

 

Benzyl ether

Diethyl Ether

2.8

1.353

220

35

0.32

6.89

Diethyl Ether **

Trichloromethane
Chlorofom *

4.1

1.4459

245

61.2

0.57

0.815

Trichloromethane **

Dichloromethane, Methylene Chloride *

3.1

1.424

234

41

0.44

1.66

Dichloromethane **

1,2 Dichloroethane, Ethylene chloride

3.5

1.444

225

84

0.79

0.81

Ethylene chloride

n-Butyl Acetate

3.9

1.399

215

118

2.98

7.81

Butyl Acetate

Iso Propylalcohol

3.9

1.377

210

82

2.30

100

2-Propanol **

n- Butanol

4.0

1.394

254

125

0.73

0.43

n- Butanol

n-Propanol
1-Propanol

4.0

1.384

210

97

2.27

100

n-Propanol

Tetrahydrofurane*

4.0

1.407

215

65

0.55

100

Tetrahydrofurane **

Ethyl Acetate*

4.4 - 4.3

1.372

260

77

0.45

8.7

Ethyl Acetate**

Methyl Ethyl Ketone,
 2-Butanone

4.5 - 4.7

1.379

329

80

0.45

24

Methyl Ethyl Ketone

1.4 Dioxane,
p-Dioxane

4.8

1.422

215

101

1.54

100

1.4 Dioxane

Acetone

5.1 - 5.4

1.359

330

56

0.32

100

 Acetone

Ethanol

5.2

1.360

210

78

1.20

100

Ethanol

Acetonitrile*

5.8 - 6.2

1.344

190

82

0.37

100

Acetonitrile**

Acetic Acid

6.2

1.372

230

118

1.26

100

acetic acid

N,N-Dimethylformamide

6.4

1.431

268

155

0.92

100

Dimethylformamide

Diethylacetamid

6.5

 

268

 

 

 

 

Methanol*

6.6 - 5.1

1.329

205

65

0.60

100

Methanol **

Dimethyl Sulfoxid.
Methyl Sulfoxide

7.2

1.478

268

189

2.8

100

Dimethyl Sulfoxid

Formamide

7.3

1.446

260

210.5

3.76

100

Formamide

Water *

9.0

1.333

200

100

1.0

100

 

Aqueous Puffersolution

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buffers

* popular eluents in chromatography , ** popular solvents in preduction scale chromatography

Solvent Miscibility Table

 

 

Solvent Terms

Protic vs aprotic solvents

In chemistry a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or a nitrogen (as in an amine group). In general terms, any solvent that contains labile H+ is called a protic solvent. The molecules of such solvents readily donate protons (H+) to reagents. Conversely, aprotic solvents cannot donate hydrogen.

 

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