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Special Products for Bio-separation, Bio-purification, Bio-catalysis and Hydro-metallurgy

In this section we list special products used in separation and purification of large and very large biomolecules. We also provide a range of special materials for biocatalysis and for extraction and fractionation of nobel metals and rare earth molecules.  In this field a number of specialised methods are employed. In the section Knowledge / Education we describe some processes and compare materials.

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What is Biochromatography

Biochromatography is about the separation and  purification of biomolecules. Biomolecules are generally large oligomeric  or polymeric constructs that can be divided into four classes

Monomers

Fatty Acids

Mono saccarides

Amino Acids

Nucleotides

Macromolecules

Diglyceride, Triglyceride

Polysaccharide

Polypeptide , Protein

Nucleic acid (DNA, RNA)

 Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in biological system. Together with their smaller relatives peptides they comprise of amino-acid building blocks joined through amide-bonds. They are large molecules with primary, secondary and tertiary structures. Within the structure there are  hydrophobic, hydrophilic and ionic domains which makes them complex entities that are synthesized and metabolised within an even more complex biological system. Our mood, well-being, intelligence, existence, in-existence  etc. is driven by these biomolecules and molecular processes. Biologist have divided these complex systems into various fields such as the Genome, Transcriptome, Lipidome (Lipidome is the entire complement of cellular lipids including the modifications made to a particular set of lipids, produced by an organism or system.) Proteome ( Proteome is the entire complement of proteins, including the modifications made to a particular set of proteins, produced by an organism or system.) Metabolome, (The metabolome refers to the complete set of small-molecule chemicals found within a biological sample). The study of these field are called Lipidomics (Is about large scale study of pathways and networks of lipids.) Proteomics (Is about large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions) Metabolomics (I a more loaded term with a number of definition such as   "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific  cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule  metabolite profiles)

In a first step we have to quantify those biological molecules and their pathways. To do that efficiently and effectively we need some separation e.g. LC, GC, CE and some detection devices e.g. MS, UV, etc.. In some fields clearly defined strategies have been established while in other we are still searching for efficient and effective strategies.

For quantifying proteins common strategies have been established over the past few years

Protein Quantification
 

Global Approaches

 

Targeted Approaches

Protein Centric
Top-down

 

Peptide-centric
or Bottom-up

Protein centric

 

Peptide Centric

2D Gels

Label Free

 

Labelled

MALDI

MRM

 

Peak Intensities

Metabolic

MSIA

SISCAPA

Spectral counting

Chemical

 

 

The relevant methods are described in section Knowledge -> Methods. In the section Analytical Columns you find very successful products.

Once we know which molecules do what type of performance in the biological system then we can synthesize them or their antagonists and use them diagnostically and therapeutically. This again is a long and complex process that can be divided into biological and chemical synthesis.
We start with designing the target molecules and we decide which path to pursue. In biological synthesis we use living entities such as bacteria, yeast, roots, plants, to produce the target molecules. They have to be genetically engineered to produce the desired molecules. For small molecules we generally use the organic synthetic or peptide synthesis path. We have to decide on the starting platform and to design the synthetic path.  In the  biosynthetic strategy some complex molecules are extracted from natural resources, fractionated and then chemically modified via organic synthetic path or through catalytic or bio catalytic interactions. All these manifestation produce target molecules, by-products and some unwanted particles, matrix residues, endotoxins, nutrients or virus.
Over many years biomolecular specialst have evolved together with chromatography specialist a wide range of fractionation, separation and purification methods and materials for the prep or industrial scale of target  biomolecules

In a downstream process some molecules need to be recrystallised, freeze dryed, encapsulated, conjugated,  mixed with adjuvants etc etc to achieve the appropriate galenic form and drug delivery properties.

At each process level the quality of the target compound has to be measured and compared with the specification. For that a number of specific methods have been developed.

In the section Knowledge -> Methods is a list of descriptions of  bio molecular quantification, fractionation, extraction, purification methods such as size exclusion, ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, reversed phase chromatography,

In this section there is a large range of  materials for prep and industrial scale purification of biomolecules

In the section Analytical Columns we have a range of columns for successful bio-analysis

 

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