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AQ Columns

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High Aqueous Phases - Columns/pases compatible with 100% aqueous mobile phases

Introduction

AQ phases/columns are used to separating very polar, water-soluble compounds. Eluents containing less than 5% organic modifier are commonly used to achieve sufficient retention. However, operation under such highly aqueous conditions can lead to poor chromatographic reproducibility and decreasing retention times. Conventional C8 and C18 phases undergo 'phase collapse' under these conditions, resulting in a reduction of accessible bonded phase. This phenomenon may either occur very quickly or more gradually.

‘High Aqueous’ Phases

The phase collapse problem has been addressed by either embedding a polar group in the alkyl phase or by using hydrophilic (polar) endcapping reagents. . Both these approaches, or the use of a C30 phase, have the effect of maintaining the phase surface under fully wetted conditions, even when using 100% aqueous eluent.

AQ Phases show good retention and resolution for polar compounds

Compared to traditional alkyl phases these 'high aqueous' phases are resistant to retention loss when using highly aqueous eluents, even after several days or weeks. Reproducible retention times and improved peak shapes are achieved for acidic, basic and zwitterionic analytes.

Alternative selectivity

Conventional C18 phases depend predominantly on hydrophobic interactions between analyte and stationary phase to provide separation. In addition, ‘AQ’ type phases may also show hydrophilic (polar) interactions via H-bonding and dipole-dipole forces. This can influence retention time and improve selectivity for polar analytes.

Eliminate need for ion-pair additives

Many separations of very polar analytes are performed using ion-pair chromatography in order to provide adequate retention. The use of an ‘AQ’ phase generally enables reproducible results to be obtained using conventional aqueous/organic eluents.

Typical applications.

Typical applications of these ‘AQ’ type phases include carboxylic acids, water soluble vitamins, catecholamines, nucleic acid bases and various polar pharmaceuticals

 

‘High Aqueous’ Phases

Phase /Brand

Manufacturer

Particle Size (um)

Pore size (A)

Comments

ACE AQ

ACT

3, 5, 10

100

C18 with integral polar functionality

ACE C18 AR

ACT

3,5,10

100

C18 with phenyl moiety

ACE EXEL AQ

ACT

2,3,5,

100

UHPLC C18 material wi

AquaSep

ES Industries

3, 5

100

Embedded ether group

Capcell Pak C18 AQ

Shiseido

3, 5

120

C18 phase

Chromegabond ODS-PI

ES Industries

3, 5

120

Ureide embedded polar group

Cogent Bidenate C18

Cogent

4

 

Silicahydride

Cosmosil C18-PAQ

Nacalai Tesque

 5

120

C18 phase with polymeric linkage

Develosil RPAQUEOUS

Nomura

3, 5

140

C30 ligands, monofunctional

Develosil RPAQUEOUS-AR

 

3, 5

140

C30 ligands, trifunctional

Epic Polar

ES Industries

3, 5, 10

120

Embedded ether group

Genesis AQ

Grace Davison

 

120

C18 phase

Hydrosphere

YMC

3, 5

120

Hydrophilic C18 surface

Hypersil GOLD aQ

Thermo Scientific

1.9, 3.5, 8, 12

175

Alkyl chain with polar endcapping

HyPURITY ADVANCE

Thermo Scientific

3, 5

190

Polar embedded C8 phase

HyPURITY AQUASTAR

Thermo Scientific

3, 5

190

Polar endcapped C18 phase

Inertsil ODS 4

GL Science

 

 

 

Inertsil ODS-EP

GL Sciences

5

100

 C18 phase with polar embedded group

Inertsil SP

GL Science

 

 

 

 MacroSep AQS

ES Industries

3, 5

300

Embedded ether group

NUCLEODUR C18 Pyramid

Macherey-Nagel

3, 5

110

C18 with hydrophilic endcapping

NUCLEOSIL Nautilus

Macherey-Nagel

3, 5

100

C18 with polar embedded group

Obelisc

SIELC

 

 

 

Primesep

SIELC

 

 

 

ProTec-RP

ES Industries

3, 5

100

C8, C18 or Phenyl with embedded amide group

Symmetry Shield

Waters

3.5, 5

100

C18 or C8 with embedded polar group

TSKgel ODS-100V

Tosoh Bioscience

3, 5

100

Difunctional C18 with difunctional endcapping

Ultisil AQ-C18

Welch Materials

3,5,10

120

 

YMC ODS-AQ

 YMC

3, 5

120, 200

C18 with hydrophilic endcapping

Zorbax Bonus-RP

Agilent Technologies

3.5, 5

80

C14 chain with embedded amide group

Zorbax SB-Aq

Agilent Technologies

1.9, 3.5, 8, 12

80

Proprietary

 

Interesting  Publications

Go to ACE AQ

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